# Faulty Coin

## Problem

You have $$1000$$ coins, one of which is faulty: it has a head on both sides. You randomly draw a coin, and, without examining it, toss it $$10$$ times. As it happens, you get $$10$$ heads in a row. What’s the probability that it’s the faulty one?

## Solution

Bayes theorem is useful for solving this problem. Let $$P(F)$$ represent the prior probability that the drawn coin is faulty. Let $$P(H)$$ represent the prior probability of the coin landing on heads $$10$$ times in a row.

We can calculate $$P(H)$$ by considering the two possible cases for the drawn coin—it is either faulty or not:

$P(H) = \frac{1}{1000}(1)+\frac{999}{1000} \left( \frac{1}{2^{10}} \right) = \frac{2023}{1024000}$

We trivially know that $$P(F) = \frac{1}{1000}$$, since only one coin is faulty. Additionally, we know $$P(H|F) = 1$$, since the faulty coin always lands on heads.

Inserting these values into Bayes’ theorem gives the following solution:

$\begin{split} P(F|H) &= \frac{P(F)P(H|F)}{P(H)} \\ &= \left( \frac{1}{1000}\right) \left(\frac{1024000}{2023} \right) \\ &\approx 0.506 \end{split}$